John Phillips the potter and Princess Louise

 

THE PRINCESS AND THE POTTER

‘In the year 1867 village art classes were established in Bovey Tracey, where

the local conditions were peculiarly favourable. The extensive pottery works in the parish

 furnished intelligent students, and the resident gentry supported the work’[1]

Malcolm and Frances Billinge 2017

 

 

 

 

 Aller Vale Pottery.co.uk

 Introduction

John Phillips worked for the Bovey Tracey Pottery Company during the 1860s managing the brickworks about which we have already written.[2] He left to start his own pottery situated between Newton Abbot and Torquay, champion art pottery and set up three cottage art classes for local boys and girls. His work was admired by one of Queen Victoria’s children, Princess Louise, who was a sculptress and she bestowed Royal patronage upon John Phillips’ work. She visited his Aller Vale Pottery and also opened his 1890 Art Exhibition.

Princess Louise and her new husband, the Marquis of Lorne visited Bovey Tracey in 1873 but not in any obvious connection with John Phillips nor his work within the South Devon community.

During the Victorian period Bovey Tracey was home to at least twenty-four members of the prestigious Buller family. We have previously written about the Divetts, Lewins, Fox-Strangways and Hughes who were all members of the extended Buller family living at various times in Bovey Tracey.[3] Some members of these related families involved themselves in local arts and crafts developments.

John Phillips – Potter

 John Phillips. Honiton-pottery-collectors-society.co.uk

 

John Phillips was born in Shaugh Prior, West Devon and in 1861 both he, aged twenty-five, and his widowed mother were described as a china clay merchants and brick manufacturers.[4] A few years after this census John was working in Bovey Tracey at the Bovey Tracey Pottery Company which had been established by John Divett and Capt. Thomas Wentworth Buller in 1843.[5]

Wentworth William Buller later took his father’s place within the Bovey Pottery and early in the 1860s John Phillips became manager of ‘The Fire and Architectural Brick Works’ at the pottery. Between 1864 and 1868 John promoted these products at regular Bath and West of England Meetings held across the South-West at venues including Bristol (1864), Salisbury (1867) and Falmouth (1868). At each show John Phillips would display ‘Fire and architectural bricks, terra-cotta vases, chimney pots and cottage bread-making ovens.’[6]

During 1866 John also placed advertisements locally for, ‘Fire bricks, tiles, quarries, lumps, etc; economical cottage, bread-baking ovens; architectural bricks moulded to any design –white or red; pressed, facing bricks, terra-cotta vases, chimney pots, balusters, etc; red ware vases, baskets etc; flower pots, all sizes. They were produced at ‘The Fire and Architectural Brick Works, Bovey Tracey’ but he gave his address as ‘offices of the Fire Brick Works, Newton Abbot.’[7] John Phillips did not live in Bovey Tracey and his membership of the Devonshire Association from 1864 listed his different addresses in Torquay and then Newton Abbot before moving, with his three unmarried sisters of independent means into Moor Park House on the Aller Vale Pottery site. The 1871 Census listed his address as Allar (sic) in Abbotskerswell.[8]

In 1867 there was an innovative development at the Bovey Tracey Horticultural Show. The local press announced, ‘We understand that a committee has been formed for holding an exhibition of works of industry and skill, in connection with the above. They propose exhibiting specimens of potting material and pottery, from the earliest stage of manufacture up to the completely finished ware. There will also be a section for models of ships, churches, houses etc, and another section will be allotted to collections of geological specimens of the parish and neighbourhood. The fourth section will be devoted to the exhibiting of needlework, penmanship, bread making etc.’ The newly opened railway line would allow easy access to ‘pleasure parties’.[9]

The show took place as planned with the usual display of fruit, flowers and vegetables to be judged by local worthies. However, in addition there was a separate tent and, ‘The most novel feature of the exhibition was the Industrial and Art Loan Department under the management of Mr Wentworth Buller.’ The Bovey Pottery exhibited illustrations of the art of pottery from the raw materials to the finished ware, including fire and architectural bricks. Local lignite and clays were shown and there was also a collection of other geological specimens, stuffed birds and animals, model boats, Bronze-age weapons, architectural drawings, needlework and paintings. John Phillips and Mr Hole of Parke were the committee secretaries.[10]

The exhibition included a painting ‘Evening on Dartmoor’ by Susannah, one of John’s three sisters and future exhibitions also included her work as well as decorative art by a second sister, Elizabeth.

The introduction of scientific, industrial, artistic and craft elements into a traditional horticultural show was novel, but also of its time. In 1862 the Devonshire Association for the Advancement of Science, Literature and the Arts had been established following the suggestion of William Pengelly who the year before had spent several months studying the clays, lignites and fossil flora in John Divett and Wentworth William Buller’s Bovey Coal Pit.[11] This was a time of increasing interest in the arts and sciences and there was a growing call for educational opportunities to be made more widely available.

Sometime around 1868 John Phillips moved from the Bovey Pottery to a pottery at Aller near Newton Abbot where Phillips, John & Co. initially made drainpipes, tiles and chimney pots.[12] Moor Park, on this site, was to be his base for the next thirty years (Fig. 1)

 

 

Figure 1. Aller Vale Pottery. Philip Carter, Newton Abbot.

In 1869 there was an art exhibition held at the Philadelphia Hall, Newton Abbot and, ‘Mr J. Phillips, then of the Bovey Tile and Brick Works, now of Newton near which place he is establishing another pottery, was the guiding spirit at Bovey, and to his unwearied exertions the present highly successful effort may mainly be attributed.’ The exhibition was for the benefit of the Newton Abbot School of Art that had been open for one year, and John Phillips was on the committee. The twenty or so pupils were mostly pottery hands, but also mechanics, apprentices, domestic servants.[13] They sat for examinations administered from South Kensington, the site of the then National Art Training School.

The exhibition included a collection of simple outline drawings and other artwork by the pupils of the Bovey Tracey drawing class, showing the progress made by the pupils in the course of just a few months’ teaching.[14]

The philanthropic aspect of these small, local art classes was illustrated by such comments as, ‘The object of the association [the Home Arts and Industries Association] is the opening of classes for teaching artistic handicrafts to working boys and men, especially in villages, with a view to the development of village industry, and preventing the overcrowding of cities,’ and ‘abundant evidence is given that a stimulus has already been applied to the skill and ingenuity of the working classes of the district.’[15] The classes encouraged by John Phillips catered for girls as well as boys.Their establishment was also in part driven by the ‘Arts and Crafts’ and the ‘Aestheticism’ movements as indicated by the comment, ‘It is to be hoped that the ugly mantle-piece ornaments so often seen in the houses of the humbler classes will soon be replaced by pretty articles such as are seen at this exhibition.’(Fig. 2).[16]

 

 

Figure 2. Aller Vale Pottery Employees. Cashmore 1983.

As well as this local art the exhibition included a wide range of model ships/steam-engines, scientific instruments, artefacts from Kent’s Cavern and also many fine art paintings loaned by supportive families, including the Divetts of Bovey Tracey. There was entertainment by ‘glee singers’ from Bovey Tracey, and John Phillips gave an address.[17]

That same year at the annual meeting of the Devonshire Association at Dartmouth John Phillips had suggested that similar exhibitions of art and craftwork could be included in their future meetings in order to attract greater attendance and to promote further creative endeavours. John had in mind, ‘works of high, industrial, and manufacturing art, and objects of historical and archaeological interest.’ A committee was formed at Newton Abbot which included members of the earlier Bovey Tracey Art and Industrial Show with the aim of preparing a similar exhibition to enhance the proposed 1871 Devonshire Association meeting at Bideford. John Phillips was a member of this committee.[18]

There was a second art exhibition held at the Philadelphia Hall, Newton Abbot in 1870, this time opened by the Earl of Devon who later distributed the prizes. Again there were, ‘many lent articles of vertu’ (sic) on display.[19] The Devonshire Association held its tenth annual meeting in Bideford in August 1871 as planned but there are no reports of an accompanying art exhibition.[20]

 Princess Louise – the Young Sculptress

Princess Louise was the sixth of Queen Victoria’s nine children, born in 1848 (Fig. 3).

Figure 3. Princess Louise . Unknown Source , Worldroots.

Louise showed an early interest in art and by the time she was fourteen she was being tutored in drawing and painting by William Leitch. Her main interest however was sculpture and in the mid-1860s Louise was able to benefit from tuition by Mary Thornycroft, a renowned sculptress who was well accepted within Royal circles.[21]

Queen Victoria was far from a sympathetic parent but Louise was strong-willed and in 1868 she was allowed to attend the National Art Training School at South Kensington where she developed her sculpting skills under the direction of Joseph Edgar Boehm.[22] The Art School owed its establishment to funds made available from Prince Albert’s Great Exhibition of 1851.

Princess Louise, like John Phillips, was influenced by new artistic developments that were to become identified as the Arts and Crafts Movement, made famous by John Ruskin and William Morris. How and when Princess Louise met John Phillips is a little unclear but a newspaper report of the 1890 Torquay Art Exhibition informed that, ‘Through the Kew School, of which Mr Phillips was at one time secretary, he had become acquainted with Her Royal Highness, who had accorded her patronage to the exhibitions.’[23] In 1882 John Phillips used the letters F.R.S.A. after his name which suggests that he had close links with the London art scene.[24]

Princess Louise married the Marquis of Lorne in 1871 and in 1873 they moved into apartments in Kensington Palace which Louise had decorated in a new ‘Aestheticism’ style. She also had built her first proper art studio and for the rest of her life she immersed herself in fashionable art circles.[25]

1873 was also the year in which Princess Louise and her husband visited Devon, staying at Powderham Castle, the seat of the Earl of Devon, and her itinerary was well documented in the local press.[26] As well as being interested in new artistic developments Louise was also involved in philanthropic work, including the promotion of education for working-class children and, more especially homes established to help disadvantaged girls. Princess Louise was, for example president of The Recreative Evening Schools, president of The Society for Home Education and she laid the foundation stone for a new wing at the Victoria Hospital for Children.[27]

During her visit to Devon Louise visited the Kenton Home for Orphan and Destitute Girls established by the late Countess of Devon and still maintained by Lady Agnes Wood, the Earl’s daughter. The next day during her visit to Bovey Tracey Louise visited the Devon House of Mercy, an institution for ‘fallen women’ built by the Earl’s brother, the Hon. and Rev, Charles Courtenay, vicar of Bovey Tracey.[28] Charles Leslie Courtenay was a canon at Windsor and he had been the domestic chaplain to Queen Victoria at the time of Louise’s birth. He had married Lady Caroline Margaret Somers-Cocks who was a maid of honour to Queen Victoria, also at the time of Louise’s birth, and these close ties explains why Louise and her esteemed entourage from Powderham Castle lunched with Charles and Lady Courtenay in Bovey Tracey during the stay in South Devon.[29]

Royal Patronage for the work of John Phillips

In 1880 John Phillips was the secretary of a committee that proposed the establishment of a School of Science and Art in Newton Abbot. John Phillips raised concern that Britain was lagging behind its continental competitors and the proposed school would help the many young railway workers to improve their practical skills, and also young ladies working in the five local potteries to develop their artistic skills. Art pottery was being produced elsewhere in the country and Newton Abbot had both the clay and the facilities to enter this market. The newspaper supported this proposal, stating, ‘The habits of intellectual relaxation which attendance on either Art or Science classes would create, would be of life-long benefit to the student … how superfluous are the enjoyments of beer and tobacco when the mind is occupied with study.’[30]

The next year following a fire John Phillips converted his Aller Vale Pottery to produce art pottery rather than utilitarian products and he renamed it the Aller Vale Art Pottery. Another Art Exhibition was held in Newton Abbot in 1881 and it was reported that, ‘A new building for the School of Art will very soon be erected in the town.’[31] Shortly before this exhibition opened,  ‘The Hon Sec of the Newton Art School [John Phillips] has received a communication from Capt. Collins, equerry to H.R.H. the Princess Louise – Marchioness of Lorne – written from Florence, conveying her Royal Highness’s consent to patronise the Art Exhibition to be held next month in connection with the school.’[32]

Two further Art Exhibitions followed in 1882 and 1883 and exhibits were sent from South Kensington, the home of the National Art Training School that in 1896/97 would become the Royal College of Art. Although these exhibitions were useful in encouraging further initiatives there was a degree of tension regarding their educational aims. The Aestheticism movement promoted ‘Art for Art’s Sake’ but at the 1882 Newton Abbot exhibition, Mr J. C. Horsley, R.A. gave a speech in which he said that the present schools of art had completely drifted from the, ‘great purpose – schools of design where art solely in connection with manufacturers were fostered.’ Instead they had become, ‘mere drawing and painting schools from which amateurs of both sexes flooded the country with worthless productions from which the country derived neither honour nor profit.’[33]

In October 1886 Princess Louise and the Marquis of Lorne stayed in Torquay for a week and visited a marble works, and a nursery that supplied pampas grass plumes to decorate the YMCA where Stanley delivered a lecture on his African travels. The Marquis visited the Torquay School of Art to see the students at work but there appears to be no mention in the press at the time of Princess Louise having visited John Phillips at his nearby Aller Vale Pottery.[34]

However, the following year John Phillips held the first of several art exhibitions at Kingskersewll and, ‘The Princess Louise supplied the means for setting such an admirable scheme afloat, and has bestowed her patronage on the exhibition.’ This press report referred back to the previous year, 1886, when Princess Louise had inspected an iron tripod made by fourteen-year old William Prowse and was being told why it was so substantial, ‘Her Royal Highness at once exclaimed “Oh! Don’t stop him, it is quite delightful and so like an English boy”.’ [35] This would appear to confirm her visit to the Aller Vale Pottery and some sources say that from henceforth it was re-named the Royal Aller Vale Pottery although press reports do not appear to have added this term until after John Phillips had died in 1897 and his pottery had been amalgamated with another to become the Royal Aller Vale and Watcombe Pottery Company.[36]

Princess Louise was also reported to have visited the Aller Vale Pottery in 1894 after which time a ‘Princess Louise Ware’ with a butterfly motif was produced.[37] In the same year she and her husband visited the Staffordshire Potteries to open an extension of the Wedgwood Institute and to visit the Dalton works.[38]

Wider interest in south Devon art pottery ensued and one month before the 1886 Royal visit to Torquay we learn that, ‘The Watcombe Pottery Company, St Marychurch, has just received from Her Majesty the Queen an order for some of their manufactures.’[39] Liberty’s, the fashionable London store began to stock a range of art pottery from Aller Vale, reputedly as a result of the Royal patronage by Princess Louise.[40] Princess Alexandra, later Queen Alexandra, also visited the Aller Vale Pottery and placed an order with a design that came to be known as Sandringham Ware.[41] This was white clay pottery ‘by permission of the Princess of Wales’.[42]

John Phillips established cottage art classes near his pottery at Kingskerswell, Abbotskerswell and Coffinswell and he staged art exhibitions at Kingskerswell in 1887, 1888 and 1889. As well as local artwork John displayed work from many other schools that operated under the auspices of the Home Arts Industrial Association. Art was again loaned from South Kensington and John also displayed art pottery from Aller Vale. The latter included a small tea-set and pitcher ‘The Dartmoor Pixie Pitcher’ designed by H.R.H. the Princess Louise.[43]

The cottage art classes most closely associated with John Phillips were for girls as well as boys up to the age of fourteen who learnt to model clay, hammer iron and brass, carve wood, sketch and undertake needlework. He was held in high regard as seen by the commemorative plaque in St Mary’s Abbotskerswell (Fig. 4).

Figure 4. Plaque to John Phillips St Mary’s Abbotskerswell. Malcolm Billinge 2017

The involvement of Princess Louise was again confirmed in a further press report, ‘These classes are under the special patronage of her Royal Highness the Princess Louise, who, when on a visit to the potteries in the neighbourhood, supplied the means for starting the classes.’[44]

The 1888 Kingskerswell Art and Industrial Exhibition was again patronised by Princess Louise and, ‘The most advanced display is found in the carved oak chest, executed for the Princess Louise by Mr Searley and Mr W. White.’ The Aller Vale Pottery decorated by the Kingskerswell and Abbotskerswell classes included examples of the new Barbotine Ware which became very popular and is sought after by collectors today.[45]

At the 1889 Kingskerswell Arts and Crafts Exhibition women’s work was well to the fore and this included a new pillow lace – Kerswell lace. The exhibition was judged a great success and, ‘It is not a matter for surprise that so many of the country classes send of their best to the Kingskerswell annual exhibition when their work so freely sells.’ John Phillips addressed the pupils, ‘Village life in England was being revolutionised by the advance of culture, and would never recede, while and where such culture was fostered.’ ‘These young people were ‘making traditions’ for the new order of things, and for the greater enjoyment of life that such culture was bringing into our most secluded villages.’ They sang ‘glee songs’ including ‘The song of Three Wells’ [Abbotskerswell, Kingskerswell and Coffinswell] which was composed by one of John’s sisters.[46]

The fourth ‘Kingskerswell’ Art Exhibition was held in Torquay in 1890, again under the auspices of the Home Arts and Industrial Association and this time the exhibition was opened by Princess Louise who travelled down especially for the occasion. Once again John Phillips was the prime mover and once again there was a wide display of art including items from South Kensington. One item of particular interest on display that year was ‘The Black Prince’ which was a sculpture created by Princess Louise herself. [47]

The eighth annual Kingskerswell art exhibition held in 1894 was again under the patronage of Princess Louise, and the ninth Kingskerswell exhibition was, ‘opened by H.R.H. Louise the Princess Louise, who continues as patron of the Aller Vale Schools.’[48]

At the 1896 Newton Abbot art exhibition, ‘For the first time awards will be made and certificates granted, and those of the first class will be signed by HRH Princess Louise patron of the Devon Arts and Crafts Society …’.[49]

Two further references attest to the strong and enduring relationship between John Phillips and Princess Louise:

‘He founded the School of Art at Newton Abbot, and so interested the Princess Louise in his scheme of training young artistic workers, that she went down and opened the                                               school, making several purchases of Mr Phillips’ goods.’[50] 

                                  ‘He was closely identified with the Association for the promotion of Home Industries, and in that connection found a most sympathetic helper in her Royal Highness Princess                                         Louise, who for years past has been one of the very best friends of the Aller Vale Pottery Works.’[51]

 

The Involvement of Some Eminent Bovey Tracey Residents

We have shone a little light on the inspirational life and achievements of John Phillips who as a younger man had worked for John Divett and Wentworth William Buller at the Bovey Pottery. His championing of cottage art classes and art exhibitions over many years was personally supported by Princess Louise whose enduring life interest was art in its own right and also as a source of goodness for mankind.

Whereas John Phillips had a direct connection to Bovey Tracey in the 1860s that of Princes Louise was more ephemeral but it is noteworthy that she visited the town in 1873 and was addressed by Jabez Mugford who had worked at the Bovey Pottery for many years and was a close associate of co-owner Wentworth William Buller.[52]

Our continuing interest in Bovey Tracey resident members of the extended Buller family – the Divetts, Lewins, Fox-Strangways and Hughes – has led us to note the involvement of these residents in the above artistic developments.

Wentworth William Buller as we have seen introduced an innovative artistic and industrial element into the traditional small town horticultural show at Bovey Tracey in 1867 and this exhibition included a model of the Plymouth Breakwater ‘by’ (made by?) himself. One year later he had a paper entitled ‘On Predictive Meterology’ published in the Transactions of the Devonshire Association.[53] Wentworth’s talents are further demonstrated by his presenting a paper, in Bovey Tracey, on the ‘Geographical Distribution of Plants’, and exhibiting, ‘a rich specimen of Guipure lace made by himself’ at a horticultural show held at his own Whimple estate.[54]

The Divett family regularly contributed artworks to John Phillips’ exhibitions, and Miss Mary Divett had created some of these herself. At the 1867 Bovey Tracey show Mary Divett and Miss G. Buller (probably Wentworth’s sister Gertrude) displayed some of their carved wooden frames, and Mary and her cousin Adela were both on the organising committee. Mary’s father John Divett judged the geological specimens.[55]

At the 1869 Newton Abbot exhibition John and Henrietta Divett contributed ‘The Graces at a Peasant’s Table’ a miniature carved by their daughter Mary, as well as ‘other pretty things.’[56]

Mary Divett’s contribution at the 1890 exhibition held in Torquay, after her parents’ death, was a magnificent piece of Chinese embroidery.[57]

In July 1890, two months after the Torquay event there was an art exhibition in Lustleigh held in part to raise funds for an art class in the village. John Phillips was once again involved and artwork from the Kingskerswell and Abbotskerswell classes was displayed as were items from his Aller Vale Pottery.This time Mary Divett was not recorded as having contributed but Miss Fox-Strangways of Bovey Tracey contributed a wood carving and she would have been either Violet (29) or Mary (22) who were both living at Front house on East Street. Also exhibited were Mr Gould’s exquisite collection of Siamese curios and it was Owen Gould, a tea-planter living at Knowle, Lusteligh (then in Bovey Tracey parish) whom Mary Fox-Strangways was to marry in 1895.[58] Mary and Owen’s two sons became teak foresters in the Far East and for one son at least there is a record of him having lived and worked in Siam.[59] Two grandchildren still live in Lustleigh.

John Phillips held his fifth Kingskerswell Art Exhibition in 1891 and there were now seventeen cottage art classes in Devon, including the new one at Lustleigh and also one in Bovey Tracey which was taught by one of the two Miss Fox-Strangways.[60]

There had been an earlier art class in Bovey Tracey which exhibited at the 1869 Newton Abbot art exhibition but this had probably lapsed. In 1891 George Ross Divett, John Divett’s nephew and now sole owner of the Bovey Pottery, convened a meeting to consider the re-establishment of the Bovey Tracey Arts & Crafts Society which started in 1867 but disbanded when John Phillips moved to the Aller Pottery. Mary Divett proposed the setting-up of a committee which was to include both Violet and Mary Fox-Strangways and also George Ross Divett.[61]

The fate of this last new venture is not known but the intellectual and creative life of Bovey Tracey continued through the 1890s with the establishment of both the Bovey Tracey and the Chudleigh Knighton Debating Societies.

The former met from (at least) 1895 to 1899 with topics including wild flowers, the railways of India, sanitation, flour-milling and architecture. Mary Divett was the treasurer and Mrs Harriett Fox-Strangways was on the committee, allowing the use of her home, Front House on East Street. Mary Divett played the piano, Miss Hughes (one of four sisters living at Dunley House) sang and Violet or Mary Fox-Strangways read a Shakespearean character part. Miss Hughes gave a talk on ‘Egypt’ in which she spoke of the immense improvement, socially and financially, which had been brought about through the involvement of Great Britain. Miss Hughes also gave a talk on ‘Lignite’ – ‘The paper most interestingly dealt with the bed of lignite at Bovey, and specimens were shewn containing the impression of ferns etc.’[62]

The latter held its third annual season in 1894 so it may have been established earlier than Bovey Tracey’s and perhaps ended earlier, in 1896. Again there was music, readings from Shakespeare as well as talks on the franchise for women, the old age pension and speaking and hearing. Miss Fox-Strangways was again involved as was Miss Hughes who gave a talk on ‘Flints, chalks and limestones, their formations and characteristics.’[63]

Finally, we may note that the president of the Chudleigh Knighton Debating Society was John Limpus who lived in Hennock, and just to bring this article full-circle it is interesting to record that, like John Phillips, John Limpus was the manager of a brick works – in his case the Great Western Potteries Brick, Tile and Clay Works, or Candy & Co. Ltd. at Heathfield.[64]

Postscript

One year before John Phillips’ death in 1897 a further art exhibition was held at Newton Abbot and the report in the local press serves as a testament to his achievements (Fig. 5).

 

 

Figure 5. Grave of John Phillips, St Mary’s Abbotskerswell. Malcolm Billinge 2017.

‘The fame of the Aller Vale Arts and Crafts School has during recent years spread far and wide. Technical education, long before it occupied so large a space in the public mind as it now does was being carried on in the Cottage Art Schools of the Aller Vale villages, and during the past ten years, we believe, local exhibitions of the work have been held annually.’ ‘For the first time awards will be made and certificates granted, and those of the first class will be signed by H.R.H. Princess Louise patron of the Devon Arts and Crafts Society.’[65]

References

[1] Phillips, John, 1889.  A Cottage Art School in a Devonshire Village, Rep. Trans Devon Assoc. Advmt Sci., 21, 159-164, p. 160

[2] Billinge, Malcolm and Frances, 2017. Bovey Bricks article on www.boveytraceyhistory.org/topics  accessed 30 October 2017.

[3] Billinge, Malcolm and Frances, 2017. The Divetts of Bovey Tracey;The Bullers of Bovey Tracey; The Fox Strangways of Bovey Tracey; The Hughes of Bovey Tracey– all are articles on www.boveytraceyhistory.org/people accessed 2 November 2017

[4] The National Archives 1861 Census

[5] Billinge, Malcolm and Frances, 2017. The Divetts of Bovey Tracey, see note 3; Adams, Brian, 2005. Bovey Tracey Potteries (Bovey Tracey, The House of Marbles) p.17.

[6] Exeter Flying Post 15 June 1864, p. 5 as one example.

[7] Exeter and Plymouth Gazette 7 Sept 1866, p. 5.

[8] Rep.Trans Devon Assoc. Advmt Sci., List of Members in each volume from 1864-1888; The National Archives 1871 Census.

[9] Exeter and Plymouth Gazette 19 July 1867, p. 7.

[10] Exeter and Plymouth Gazette 6 September 1867, p. 9.

[11] Pengelley, W., 1862. The Lignites and Clays of Bovey Tracey in Rep. Trans. Devon Assoc. Advmt Sci., 1, pp. 29 -39.

[12] Western Morning News 31 May 1870, p. 3.

[13] Ibid. 14 September 1869, p. 3.

[14] Exeter and Plymouth Gazette Daily Telegrams 15 September 1869, p. 3.

[15] Totnes Weekly News 2 April 1887, p. 2 overcrowding; Western Morning News 14 September 1869, p. 3 stimulus to the working classes.

[16] The Western Times 14 September 1869, p. 5.

[17] Western Morning News 14 September 1869, p. 3.

[18] Phillips, John,1869. On the feasibility and advisability of holding industrial and art exhibitions at the annual meetings of this association in Rep.Trans. Devon Assoc. Advmt. Sci., 3, pp. 106-112.

[19] Exeter and Plymouth Gazette Daily Telegrams 1 June 1870, p. 3.

[20] The Western Times 17 August 1871, p. 4.

[21] Hawksley, Lucinda, 2013.The Mystery of Princess Louise (London, Chatto & Windus) p. 56.

[22] Ibid., p.100.

[23] The Western Times 18 February 1890, p. 3.

[24] Ibid, 17 February 1882, p. 4.

[25] Stoker Mark,2004.  Louise, Princess, duchess of Argyll (1848–1939)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Jan 2008 [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/34601, accessed 5 Nov 2017]; Hawksley,  p.148, see note 21.

[26]Dartmouth and South Hams Chronicle 23 May 1873, p. 2.

.[27] Cashmore, Carol and Chris, 1983. Collard the Honiton and Dorset Potter (Tiptree, Essex, Anchor Brendon Ltd.) p. 19, evening class; Hawksley, 2013, pp. 215-6, hospital, see note 21.

[28] Exeter and Plymouth Gazette 23 May 1873, p. 6.

[29]The Globe 6 June 1849, p3.

[30]The Western Times 30 July 1880, p. 2.

.[31]The Western Times 29 April 1881, p. 6.

[32]The Western Times 23 March 1881, p. 3.

[33]Banbury Advertiser 20 April 1882, p. 7.

[34]Torquay Times, and South Devon Advertiser 29 October 1886, p. 5.

[35]The Western Times 24 March 1887, p. 3.

[36] Wade, Peter, ed. 2017. Abbotskerswell Village HistoryIndustry and Commerce (Abbotskerswell, Devon, Abbpast) p. 45.

[37] Brisco, Virginia, 1998Aller Vale Art Pottery – Exhibition Catalogue’ (Newton Abbot, Newton Abbot Town Council) p. 5 quoted the Pottery Gazette 1895

.[38]St James’ Gazette 16 October 1894, p. 11.

[39]Exeter and Plymouth Gazette 9 September 1886, p. 4.

[40] Lloyd Thomas, D. and E., 1978. The Old Torquay Potteries (Ilfracombe, Arthur H. Stockwell Ltd.) p. 118.

[41] Cashmore, Carol and Chris 1983 Collard the Honiton and Dorset Potter (Tiptree, Essex Anchor Brendon Ltd.) p. 32.

[42] Lloyd Thomas, D. and E. 1978 The Old Torquay Potteries (Ilfracombe, Arthur H. Stockwell Ltd.) p.120.

[43]Exeter and Plymouth Gazette 24 March 1887, p. 2; The Western Times 16 March 1888, p. 7; Western Morning News 29 April 1889, p. 5.

[44]Exeter and Plymouth Gazette 24 March 1887, p. 2.

[45]The Western Times 16 March 1888, p. .

7[46]  Western Morning News 29 April 1889, p. 5.

[47]The Morning Post 7 May 1890, p. 7.

[48]Exeter and Plymouth Gazette 30 March 1894, p. 7; The Western Morning News 16 April 1895, p. 6.

[49]The Western Times 4 April 1896, p. 2.

[50] Cashmore, 1983, p. 21, see note 41.

[51]Western Morning News 26 February 1897, p. 5.

[52] Dartmouth and South Hams Chronicle 23 May 1873, p. 2.

[53] Buller, Wentworth William, 1868. On Predictive Meteorology in Rep. Trans. Devon Assoc. Advmt. Sci., 2 ii, 364-371

.[54]Exeter and Plymouth Gazette 21 Sept 1866, p. 6 refers to paper; The Western Times 3 August 1876, p. 3 refers to Whimple.

[55] See note 9.

[56] See note 13.

[57] Exeter Flying Post 3 May 1890, p. 7.

[58]The Western Times 16 July 1890, p. 2.

[59]Exeter and Plymouth Gazette 20 May 1949, p. 7.

[60]Exeter and Plymouth Gazette 30 March, 1891, p. 6.

[61]Totnes Weekly Times 7 February 1891, p. 6.

[62]Western Morning News 16 October 1895, p. 5.

[63]The Western Morning News 28 January 1895, p. 5.

[64] LimpusThe National Archives 1901..

[65]The Western Times 4 April 1896, p. 2.

Updated 9 November 2017